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Additional Resources

This section provides a brief overview of additional resources (including background papers, policy and guidelines documents, and websites) you may like to refer to. Resources are categorised according to broad themes, which are listed below. Click on links in the text under the themes to access each resource.

Quicklinks

Physical environments/planning (general)

Promoting and creating built or natural environments that encourage and support physical activity. NICE public health guidance 8.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), UK
January 2008

Produced for the UK Department of Health, this resource offers cost effective evidence-based recommendations on how to improve the physical environment to encourage physical activity. Sections deal with master planning, transport, open space, buildings and schools. Appendix C sets out the evidence base on which these recommended actions are based, drawn from the findings of five reviews -

  • ‘Physical activity and the environment review one: transport review’
  • ‘Physical activity and the environment review two: urban planning and design review’
  • ‘Physical activity and the environment review three: natural environment review’
  • ‘Physical activity and the environment review four: policy review’
  • ‘Physical activity and the environment review five: building design review’.

Appendix D outlines gaps in the evidence base. These reviews and other supporting evidence statements are available on the Institute’s website at www.nice.org.uk/PH008

Urban planning for physical activity and nutrition: A review of evidence and interventions (Research Paper 22)
Griffith University Urban Research Program (Matthew Burke, Emily Hatfield and Joanne Pascoe)
December 2008

This resource reviews the literature available on relationships between urban design, urban structure, transport systems with people’s travel behaviour (in particular, walking) and health. It also draws lessons from a review of the experience of various States and other countries with promoting active transport, and incidental physical activity. From this, the resource details a range of interventions for supportive environments (pg 15 - 22) in the three areas it considers the most effective - Transportation and active transport, Land use planning, and Nutrition.

Urban environments and health: Identifying key relationships and policy imperatives (Research Monograph 10)
Griffith University Urban Research Program (Elspeth Mead, Dr Jago Dodson and Claire Ellway)
October 2006

This resource examines the empirical evidence for the relationship between health outcomes and the built environment, focusing on urban form, transport and the location of health services. From this it identifies those elements of urban form which influence physical activity (such as the influence of different neighbourhood development types), and the dynamics of that influence. The resource also identifies different methods for assessing health aspects of urban form (eg the ‘Metropolitan Sprawl Index’).

Delivering Healthier Communities in London
NHS London Healthy Urban Development Unit
2007

Of benefit to Council’s strategic and statutory planning staff, as well as developers, this guideline examines ways to integrate health and well-being into the planning process at the strategic as well as statutory level. Addressing five of the key public health issues spatial planning can influence (including obesity), the guideline outlines a detailed evidence base supporting the links between health and spatial planning and includes principles for incorporating health into design, tools to guide planner’s work, and indicators to monitor health outcomes.

The guideline is structured around the presentation of case studies which illustrate the role of planning in healthier communities. Each case study identifies ‘win/wins’ and ‘constraints’. Assisting strategic planning, the resource has developed a series of good practice policies (ie. plan vision and objectives) for reference to when preparing strategic planning frameworks (such as LEP’s). Finally, the resource has developed a development checklist to ensure that health is considered within proposals.

Understanding the Relationship Between Public Health and the Built Environment - a report prepared for the LEED-ND core committee.
Dr. Reid Ewing, Dr. Richard Kreutzer
May 2006

This report presents an appraisal of the current state of the research regarding the links between public health and neighbourhood design and provides recommendations about how this knowledge can be integrated into the LEED-ND rating system. LEED-ND is a rating system for neighbourhood location and design based on the combined principles of smart growth, urbanism, and green building. Chapter 4 deals with walking, bicycling and transit use and the built environment (Characteristics of Neighbourhood form, Population and employment density, Land use mix, Route interconnectivity, Open space and recreational facilities, Street design (eg scale and safety)).

Health Imapcts of Transport: A Review
Institute of Public Health in Ireland
2005

A summary of evidence for health and wellbeing impacts of transport, and outlines some conscise strategies on ways to use transport initatives to increase physical activity, improve social networks and increase social support.

Liveable Neighbourhoods - A Western Australian Government Sustainable Cities Initiative
Western Australian Planning Commission
2004 (Edition 3)

"Liveable Neighbourhoods" is an initiative of the Western Australian Government. It aims to achieve compact, well connected, safer and more vibrant urban communities and provides an alternative to current WA policies on subdivision and structure plans. While developed specifically for the WA context, it does contain information which may be of relevance to professionals in NSW involved in planning environments for active living, particularly relating to the design of communities, pedestrian and cyclist movement networks, and public parklands. It also contains a useful summary of the process for calculating and mapping walkable catchments.

Activity Centre Design Guidelines
Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment
January 2005

This resource is an initiative of the Victorian government. It provides advice and guidance to Victorian councils in structure planning for activity centres and in developing individual planning scheme policies and controls. It is structured under eight elements of design consideration: urban structure, stations and interchanges, street design, public spaces, building design, malls and large stores, higher density housing, car parking. Under each design element there are a series of general design objectives, each with a set of related design suggestions - these may be of relevance to professionals in NSW involved in planning environments for active living.

Supportive Environments for Physical Activity - Guidelines for local government
National Heart Foundation of Australia
September 1999

This resource seeks to assist local councils to integrate specific objectives and actions related to creating environments supportive of physical activity into decisions across their operations. Key themes reflected in the resource are street networks, neighbourhood destinations, pedestrians and cyclists and development layout. The resource follows research in the City of Marion in South Australia, which investigated the issues enabling people to be physically active in their daily lives (see the reference below for more information). This resource can be obtained from the National Heart Foundation (SA Division) - ph: 08 8224 2888.

Leading the Way: Councils Creating Healthier Communities
VicHealth
2002

This resource is designed to increase the level of understanding across local government in Victoria about how social, economic and environmental factors can impact upon health and wellbeing. It offers practical suggestions for how councils can consider policy and strategic priorities in a more integrated way, and how they can integrate health and wellbeing into their core business. The resource is in two parts - Part One explains the influences on health and wellbeing and the role of councils in creating a healthier community; Part Two includes a number of case studies.

Healthy Urban Planning
World Health Organisation Europe
2000

This book focuses on the positive effects that urban planning can have on human health, wellbeing and quality of life. It explains concepts and principles and draws on the experiences of cities and towns throughout Europe, many of which are part of the global Healthy Cities movement. It aims to refocus urban planners on the implications of their work for human health and wellbeing, and in particular, to make health objectives central to the decision making process. It suggests an approach that puts a desire for healthy citizens back at the very heart of urban planning practice.

Pedestrian-specific

Clause 56 - Walkability Toolkit
David Lock Associates/ City of Greater Geelong
2008

This award-winning toolkit outlines a simple and easy to use approach to measuring and assessing the ‘walkability’ of a proposed development. It identifies those physical characteristics which make walking a realistic and attractive way of getting around (Visual Stimuli, Comfort, Choice of routes, Positive walking bias, Articulation of opportunities), as well as those that diminish walkability (Risk, Intrusion/friction, Excessive distance or time, Negative walking bias, Exposure). Part 1 establishes a process for mapping walkable catchments, Part 2 assesses the content of the walkable catchment and Part 3 assesses the quality of the walking experience.

Landcom Street Design Guidelines
Landcom
May 2008

Intended to provide a starting point for the design of new streets, the Guideline has been prepared to promote the design of functional streets that people value. Section Two contains principles to guide the design of liveable streets. The importance of each principle is explained, and their application is illustrated with graphic and photographic examples. The resource also provides practical advice on overcoming common challenges to good urban design (for example, council or resident opposition to the connection of new streets into the established street network). Section Three presents design models for common street types - Major roads, Collector streets, Local streets, Minor local streets, Lanes and access-ways. Each model presents a description of the street and its function, and the issues to be considered in its use. Dimensioned plans and sections for each street type are also provided.

Guide to Traffic Engineering Practice - Part 13: Pedestrians
Austroads
1995

This resource provides guidance on appropriate standards for walkways and footpaths, the provision of pedestrian facilities for crossing roads, signage and other guidance methods. It pays particular attention to the need to cater for all pedestrians, including young children, older people and those with disabilities. It contains specific information on pedestrian considerations in land use planning, including urban pedestrian networks and road hierarchy considerations. It raises the consideration of behavioural programs to complement engineering practice. It also provides a pedestrian safety audit checklist. This resource is available for purchase from Austroads.

How to Prepare a Pedestrian Access and Mobility Plan - An easy three stage guide
Roads and Traffic Authority
March 2002

This resource is a practical tool for local council staff, councillors, community groups and others preparing a pedestrian access and mobility plan (PAMP). A PAMP is a comprehensive strategic and action plan to develop pedestrian policies and build pedestrian facilities. PAMPs aim to coordinate investment in safe, convenient and connected pedestrian routes. This resource provides a step-by-step approach to pedestrian planning and highlights the main issues for consideration at all stages. It also helps others with an interest in the pedestrian environment, such as health professionals, to understand and share the process. Click here to go the pedestrian section on the RTA website

Walkability Checklist
Victorian Government Go for Your Life Campaign

This checklist is designed for use by members of the community to rate the walkability of local neighbourhoods. It explores issues such as quality of footpaths, crossing roads, behaviour of drivers, safety and aesthetics of the walking route. The checklist identifies short terms solutions to problems that individuals can implement, as well as long term solutions that require action from local government, police, businesses etc.

Australian Standards
There are various Australian Standards relevant to pedestrian infrastructure and facilities.

Cycling-specific

Austroads

AP-11.14/99 Guide to Traffic Engineering Practice Part 14: Bicycles provides guidelines for the planning and construction of cycling facilities, including roads, intersections, paths, traffic control and end-of-trip facilities. Please note that this is not a free resource.

No Excuse Zone Map
EDAW
2008

This resource, useful in promoting the cycling accessibility of workplaces, is a map of the Sydney CBD which presents the distance a healthy person can cycle with in half an hour.

NSW Bicycle Guidelines
Roads and Traffic Authority
July 2005

This resource is a comprehensive best practice guide to assist road designers, engineers and planners to design and construct high-quality bicycle transport facilities. It contains a bicycle facility design checklist. It is intended to provide technical assistance on a range of issues particular to NSW and should be read in conjunction with the Austroads Guide to Traffic Engineering Practice - Part 14: Bicycles, and the Australian Standard AS 1742.9 - Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices - Part 9: Bicycle Facilities, both of which apply in NSW. Where there are differences between these documents and the NSW Bicycle Guidelines, the latter will prevail. Click here to go to the Bicycles section on the RTA website.

Guide to Traffic Engineering Practice - Part 14: Bicycles
Austroads
1999

This resource provides guidelines for road authorities, engineers, planners and designers involved in the planning and construction of cycling facilities, including information related to roads, paths and end of trip facilities. It also provides comprehensive information on a range of issues associated with cycling. It contains specific information on integrated land use and bicycle planning, and emphasises the importance of complementary behavioural programs. It also provides a bicycle safety audit checklist. This resource is available for purchase from Austroads.

How to Prepare a Bike Plan - An easy three stage guide
Roads and Traffic Authority
February 2002

This resource is a practical tool for local council staff, councillors, community groups and others preparing a bike plan. A bike plan helps to ensure that cycle facilities are effective and well-integrated. This resource provides a step-by-step approach to bicycle facility planning, focusing on research, preparation and follow-up. Click here to go to the Bicycles section on the RTA website.

Bikeability Checklist
TravelSmart

This web-based resource is for local and state government officers, planners and community groups, and will assist them to identify barriers and opportunities for the creation of environments which encourage cycling. In particular, it will enable communities and local governments to assess the bikeability of their community and better develop cycle plans, policies, short and long term strategies to address and improve current deficiencies.

Australian Standards
AS 2890.3 - 1993 Parking Facilites Part 3: Bicylce Parking
There are various Australian Standards relevant to cycling infrastructure and facilities. This Standard sets out the requirements for the layout, design and security of bicycle parking facilities. It applies to the design of parking facilities in any location, either on-street or off-street. Please note this is not a free resource.

Workplace-specific

TravelSmart Victoria - Travel Planning Guide
Travel Planning Victoria
2009

TravelSmart is a national program that aims to reduce people's dependency on cars and encourage them to choose sustainable travel alternatives. The Victorian Government has produced this short, step-by-step guide to developing, implementating and monitoring a travel plan. Guidance on what a plan should include is also provided. An associated resource kit on CD Rom provides detailed guidance on aspects of the plan's preparation process, such as how to convene a focus group, and run a startegic planning workshop.

Workplace Travel Plans
Department for Transport, UK

A web resource providing links to a number of English documents related to workplace travel planning, including development and implementation guidance (The essential guide to travel planning (Nov 2007)); case studies; evaluation studies; and guidance on using the development control and planning process to secure travel plans.

Sustrans Active Travel Workplace Toolkit
Sustrans

Sustrans, a UK sustainable transport charity, has published a UK-wide Active Travel Workplace Toolkit to help organisations encourage their employees to walk, cycle and use public transport for their commute. It contains the following resource documents -

  • Active travel in the workplace: Planning for an active workforce
  • Active travel in the workplace: A step-by-step guide
  • Active commuting: Walking to work
  • Active commuting: Overcoming personal barriers

The Essential Guide to Travel Planning
Department for Transport, UK
March 2008

This resource provides lengthy and detailed guidance on developing and implementing travel plans, drawn from case studies of those already operating in the United Kingdom. It provides advice on explaining the benefits of a travel plan to employers colleagues and compiling a business case (including potential savings, costs and income streams).

NSW Government Workplace Guidelines
NSW Government Asset Management Committee
2005 Update

These guidelines outline relevant Government policy, legislation and direction as they relate to workplace design; provide a number of interactive tools to assist users in determining workplace design solutions; and summarises general 'best thinking' associated with Ecologically Sustainable Design (ESD) and building services. These guidelines do not provide advice on travel planning or creating healthy workplace environments, beyond OH&S considerations.

Risk management (footpaths, nature strips and medians)

Sports Safety Guidelines
City of Ryde

City of Ryde, in partnership with the Ryde Safe Communities Sports Safety Group, has developed sports safety guidelines for all users - both one-off and permanent - of Council's sporting facilities.

Best Practice Manual - Footpaths, Nature Strips and Medians
Statewide Mutual

This resource is intended to be used as a reference document for local councils in the production of their own Standard for the maintenance and repair of footpaths. It specifically addresses the process of determining the types of hazards that require consideration for repair and within what timeframe the repair should be undertaken. The Statewide Mutual site also contains links to several councils' Standards (see Publications - Footpaths).

Crime prevention through environmental design

Safer by Design
NSW Police

The Safer by Design program is based upon the principles and practice of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) and aims to reduce crime opportunity through effective urban planning, design and place management. It is has been developed and championed by the NSW Police. One key component of the program is specific guidelines under section 79C of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act which require consent authorities in NSW to assess crime risk during the development assessment process. In large projects, this is done with the assistance of police trained in Safer by Design. NSW Police also runs Safer by Design courses to train planners, designers, engineers, building inspectors, crime prevention officers and other key professionals to identify, assess and minimise crime risk.

Safer Design Guidelines for Victoria
Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment, Crime Prevention Victoria
October 2003

This resource is an initiative of the Victorian Government. It has been developed to assist planners and designers apply design principles that will improve the safety of the built environment, minimise the opportunity for crime and promote safe, accessible and liveable places. It is structured under 10 elements of design consideration, including: urban structure, activity centres, building design, parks and open spaces, walking and cycling paths, public transport, car park areas, public facilities, lighting and signage. Under each design element there are a series of general design objectives, each with a set of related design suggestions - these may be of relevance to professionals in NSW involved in planning environments for active living.

ACT Crime Prevention and Urban Design Resource Manual
ACT Department of Urban Services
2000

This resource is an initiative of the ACT Government. It outlines the type of safety issues and possible design or management responses that need to be addressed in the planning and development of public places. It suggests that the principles it contains can also be applied to residential, commercial and community developments.

Shade provision

The Shade Handbook
Cancer Council NSW
2008

Cancer Council NSW has a range of publications that outline the importance of shade and explain how to go about effective shade planning and design. The Shade Handbook provides a practical guide to shade planning and design for all settings in the community. Individual information sheets are available for specific settings - early childhood centres, schools, public swimming pools, beaches and other waterside recreation areas, parks and reserves, playgrounds, sports grounds and facilities, outdoor restaurants, cafes and beer gardens, streetscapes and homes. These and other resources are available at the Cancer Council’s shade planning information page http://www.cancercouncil.com.au/editorial.asp?pageid=2336.

Under Cover: Guidelines for shade planning and design
Cancer Council NSW
September 1998

This resource is a comprehensive reference tool for professionals, organisations and individuals involved in shade planning and design. It includes information on the different shade solutions, how to conduct a shade project and recommendations for shade provision at a range of common sites. It can be obtained from the Cancer Council NSW - ph: 02 9334 1900.

Shade for Outdoor Sport and Recreation
Cancer Council NSW
2001

This resource aims to assist organisers or administrators of outdoor sport and recreation venues and activities to improve the quality of shade provided for participants, officials and spectators. It outlines the key principles of shade planning and design, the issues to consider for this setting, and specific recommendations for sports grounds and facilities, swimming pools, parks and reserves, and beaches. This resource can be obtained from the Cancer Council NSW - ph: 02 9334 1900.

WebShade
WebShade Pty Ltd

WebShade is a commercial product developed for schools, child care centres, local government authorities and other organisations involved in providing or managing outdoor spaces. It contains information on the planning and design basics that are the building blocks of a successful shade project, an interactive tool that allows you to test different shade solutions at various times of the day and year by creating "virtual" shade, and another interactive tool for conducting a shade audit. It also contains tips for managing a shade project.

End-of-Trip Facilities

Bicyle Parking Guidelines
ACT Planning and Land Authority
November 2006

An initiative of The Sustainable Transport Plan for the ACT, this guideline provides advice to planners when determining the amount, design and location of bicycle parking, lockers and showers to include with a development. Part 4 covers design and location requirements for the bicycle parking spaces required, and for the bicycle parking facilities they are contained in. Part 5 covers other bicycle-related facilities such as showers and clothing lockers. It includes requirements on both the number of facilities required and design considerations.

Population group-specific (children, young people, older people)

Promoting physical activity, active play and sport for pre-school and school-age children and young people in family, pre-school, school and community settings. NICE public health guidance 17.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), UK
January 2009

The resource provides a range of evidence-based recommendations on encouraging physical activity for pre-school and school-age children.The recommendations relate to all children and young people up to the age of 18, including those with a disability. There is a specific focus on children aged 11 and under and girls aged 11 to 18. Of specific interest are recommendations 2, 4, 9, 10 and 13 which consider the planning and provision of spaces, facilities and opportunities, as well as recommendations 5 and 12 which consider the promotion of physical activity and active travel.

Appendix C sets out the evidence base on which these recommended actions are based, drawn from the findings of eight external reviews including -

  • Correlates of physical activity in children: a review of quantitative systematic reviews;
  • The views of children on the barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity: a review of qualitative studies;
  • Intervention review: under eights;
  • Intervention review: children and active travel;
  • Intervention review: adolescent girls;
  • Intervention review: family and community; and
  • Review of learning from practice: children and active play.

Appendix D outlines gaps in the evidence base. These reviews and other supporting evidence statements are available on the Institute’s website at www.nice.org.uk/PH17. The Active travel review, for example, examines the evidence for the effectiveness of active travel interventions in increasing use of active travel modes (i.e. walking and cycling promotion, safe routes to School, School Travel Plans, walking buses).

The prevention and treatment of childhood obesity
Effective Health Care bulletin: Vol. 7 Num. 6 , NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York
2002

‘Effective Health Care bulletins’ are based on systematic review and synthesis of research on the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of health service interventions. Based upon updated several Cochrane reviews, this bulletin focuses on the effectiveness of interventions in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. It presents concise summary tables reporting the results of a large number of randomised controlled trials of school-based programmes, family-based interventions and behaviour modification programmes. As well as examining physical activity intervention, the resource considers health promotion and multifaceted interventions.

Child-friendly Environments
NSW Department of Urban Affairs and Planning
January 1999

This resource describes how children aged between five and twelve years of age perceive and use their environment, and in doing so aims to identify their environmental needs and how they could be met in planning policy. It also contains best practice examples of child-friendly environments. Importantly it highlights the significance for planners on issues relating to children themselves such as the journey to school, play, their sensory experience, and their physical and social restrictions. It also provides a perspective on environments where children spend their time, including urban areas, traffic situations, public places and play areas. While the focus is on children living in towns and cities, many of the principles and guidelines also apply to children who live in rural environments, adults who are small, or anyone who is affected by physical limitations of site, hearing, comprehension or physical competence. This resource can be purchased from the NSW Government Online Bookshop.

Urban Design Guidelines with Young People in Mind
NSW Department of Urban Affairs and Planning
September 1999

This resource was developed as part of the NSW Government's "Focus of Young People" policy, which was released in 1998. It provides guidelines on how to make public areas more youth friendly, and may be of interest to local councils, developers, architects, planners, youth workers, community service officers and the police. It also describes a participatory design process for involving young people and achieving youth ownership. Themes reflected in the resource include: access and circulation, inclusive design, mixed uses and users, safety and surveillance, separate but visible areas, performance needs, and basic services.

Public Spaces for Young People - A guide to creative and positive strategies
Australian Government Attorney General's Department
1998 (Reprinted 2002)

This resource is an initiative of the Commonwealth Government. It provides an outline of the key elements of a broad youth-friendly public space strategy and also describes the features of various grass roots initiatives and specific community-based projects, based on experience across Australia. The structure of the resource reflects this - the first section provides a broad strategic framework which outlines the key principles and directions for work in this area. The second section provides case studies of good practice, focusing on eight types of public space projects and initiatives including research and consultations, creative use of existing public spaces, art and drama in public spaces, commercial site management, new development projects, integrated local council planning, state-wide initiatives, national initiatives.

Hanging Out - Negotiating young people's use of public space
National Crime Prevention, Australian Government Attorney General's Department
March 1999

This project is an initiative of the Commonwealth Government. The summary report provides a review of the relevant literature and a strategic framework for youth crime prevention that will aid the development, management and regulation of public spaces for everyone. Of particular relevance are discussions about the importance of recognising youth space needs and the integral part youth advocates should have in the consultation and approval process for planning and built development purposes. The report includes findings from consultations with young people and interviews with key decision makers.

Shopping for a Solution - An evaluation of Western Sydney shopping centre youth projects
Youth Action Policy Association
2002

This resource documents the findings from the evaluation of a number of Western Sydney youth projects that aimed to improve the inclusion of young people in shopping centres. The projects included: the Social Belonging Project at Penrith Plaza, the Public Space Youth Committee at Westpoint Blacktown, the Equal Space Project at Stockland Wetherill Park, the Parramatta CBD Project near Westfield Parramatta and the Castle Hill Project at Castle Towers. Based on an analysis of the five projects, the report provides a checklist of key points for successful public space projects. The report also provides a series of recommendations relating to: operation of shopping centre projects, youth shopping centre protocols, centre managers, local government, security officer training, and the youth sector.

Taking Participation Seriously Kit
NSW Commission for Children and Young People

This resource provides practical advice about how to involve children and young people in activities, events and decision-making about issues that affect their lives.

Growing Up in Cities
UNESCO

This is a global initiative promoting education for action. It provides opportunities for young people to learn life skills and gain self-confidence through engagement in improving the public places of their local area. Click here for information on the Australian Growing Up in Cities project, which is in Melbourne.

Planning and the Local Government Response to Ageing and Place
Local Government and Shires Associations of NSW
October 2004

This resource explores issues relating to the ageing of the population and their potential impact on local government in NSW. It provides information on general population trends and the population projection for each local government area in NSW. It also discusses "diversity" amongst older people from a sociological, psychological and cultural perspective. Importantly it suggests a framework for assessing the social, environmental and economic impacts of ageing focusing on councils' revenue raising functions, service functions, statutory planning and regulatory functions, and their role as an employer. The report also provides background information on relevant Commonwealth and State policy frameworks.

Local physical activity programs/Behaviour change programs

Workplace health promotion: how to encourage employees to be physically active. NICE public health guidance 13.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), UK
January 2008

This resource outlines a number of evidence-based recommendations on ways employers can encourage their employees to be physically active.

Local Exercise Action Pilots (LEAP)
Department of Health, the Countryside Agency and Sport England (UK)
2006

Local Exercise Action Pilots (LEAPs) are pilot programmes which between 2003 and 2005 tested and evaluated new ways of encouraging people to take up more physical activity. Five pilots adopted a community wide approach and the remainder targeted specific populations including younger and older people. LEAP’s employed different intervention types including exercise referral; classes and groups; motivational interviewing; peer mentoring; campaigns and directories; outdoors and transport; and training coordinators and leaders. The program results are summarised in two documents -

  • Yvonne Barker (2006) Learning from LEAP: a report on the local exercise action pilots, Sport England, London. Sport England, Department of Health, & Natural England. Chapter 5 summarises the lessons identified, including the design characteristics of successful physical activity interventions. The report is interspersed with brief descriptions of some of the pilot programs.
  • Carnegie Research Institute (Leeds Metropolitan University) (December 2006), ‘The national evaluation of LEAP: final report on the national evaluation of the Local Exercise Action Pilots’. The report identifies which LEAP interventions are effective at engaging and increasing physical activity (of individuals and priority groups) as well as providing guidance on their design and delivery.

Sustainable Travel Destination Towns
UK Department for Transport
2007

The UK Department for Transport is running 5 year sustainable travel demonstration projects in three UK cities. The project seeks to demonstrate the effect a sustained package of 'Smarter Choice' measures can have. ‘Smarter choices’ http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/sustainable/smarterchoices/ is a program of methods for influencing people's travel behaviour towards more sustainable options combined with improvements in public transport and marketing services. Interim results were produced in 2007, as summarised in this document http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/sustainable/demonstrationtowns/lettersustainabletraveltowns.pdf. Participant cities increased the number of public transport trips by between 14 and 22 percent, walking trips by up to 30%, and cycling trips in one case by 80%. The number of car trips reduced by just over 10%.

Creating Active Communities - Physical Activity Guidelines for Local Councils
Department of Local Government, NSW Health Department, NSW Sport and Recreation and National Heart Foundation of Australia (NSW Division)
2001

This resource was developed as a practical tool for local councils in NSW, to assist them to encourage communities to be more physically active. It demonstrates to councils how the concept of physical activity can be integrated into existing work areas, plans, programs and activities, without the need for significant new resources. It recommends eight key principles for increasing physical activity at the community level for incorporation into councils' strategic plans and provides guidelines for implementing each principle. It outlines the issues for specific population groups, and provides useful case studies of physical activity initiatives from councils across NSW. It also provides information about organisations that might be able to assist councils in implementing physical activity initiatives (including potential funding sources).

Active Communities - Concepts to promote physical activity at the local community level in WA
Sport and Recreation WA
January 2001

This resource was developed to support the work of the Western Australian Physical Activity Taskforce. It provides useful background information for those developing local programs in NSW, including the characteristics and principles of an "active community", a suggested model for building an activity community and possible indicators for monitoring progress towards an active community.

Active Living and Social Equity - Creating Healthy Communities for All Residents
International City/County Management Association (USA)
January 2005

This resource explains the connections between active living and social equity, provides a toolbox of local government strategies for promoting active living equitably, and highlights notable examples of local initiatives from across the United States. It includes strategies for promoting active living and social equity in key issue areas such as walkability and pedestrian safety, bicycling, open space, land use, transportation infrastructure, and economic development.

TravelSmart Program

TravelSmart is a joint initiative of Australian, State and Territory Governments. TravelSmart Programs aim to encourage people to use alternatives to traveling in their private vehicles, including walking, cycling and public transport. This website provides information on the TravelSmart Program, initiatives around Australia, strategies for workplaces and schools, and a range of practical toolkits.

Walk Safely to School Day and Walk to Work Day

These are annual community events of the Pedestrian Council of Australia. Walk Safely to School Day encourages primary school children to walk and commute safely to school. It seeks to promote road safety, health, public transport and the environment. Walk to Work Day aims to encourage walking and public transport use instead of travel in the private motor vehicle.

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